The standard large symphony orchestra consists of four groups of related musical instruments called the woodwinds, brass, percussion, and strings (violin, viola, cello, and double bass).
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The four main orchestral families
In an orchestra, instruments are grouped together into families. The string family is the largest, and usually has the melody. The woodwind family usually has the harmony. The brass family usually provides punctuation in the music with fanfares and flourishes. And the percussion family provides tempo and background noise.
There are four main orchestral families:
-The string family: Violin, viola, cello, double bass, harp
-The woodwind family: Flute, oboe, clarinet, bassoon
-The brass family: Trumpet, trombone, tuba
-The percussion family: Timpani, cymbals, xylophone
The string section
The string section is divided into first and second violins, violas, cellos, and basses. The first violins play the melody most of the time. The second violins usually play harmony. The violas sometimes play harmony, and sometimes they play the melody an octave lower than the first violins. The cellos and basses usually play harmony but they also sometimes play the melody an octave or two lower than the first violins.
The woodwind section
The woodwind section is usually divided into two parts, the flutes and the reed instruments. The flutes, which include the piccolo, are often played by the first chair flutist. The reed instruments, which include the clarinets and saxophones, are usually played by the second chair clarinetist and the second chair saxophonist.
The brass section
The brass section is usually made up of trumpets, trombones, and French horns. These instruments add power and majesty to the music and often play the fanfare that begins many classical pieces.
The percussion section
The percussion section is one of the most important sections in an orchestra. It provides the rhythmic foundation for the music and can add excitement with its wide array of sounds. The percussion section usually includes the following instruments:
The harp is classified as a chordophone, meaning that it makes music by the vibration of strings. The word harp is derived from Old English hearpe, which is related to the Germanic word for arm, Gestift. Harps have been around for a very long time; early images of the instrument can be found in Mesopotamian art from roughly 3,000 BCE. The oldest surviving harp, dating back to about 1,000 BCE, was found in an Egyptian tomb. Harps are also mentioned in the Bible; King David is said to have played one to soothe Saul’s nerves.
The keyboard instruments are the most important in the orchestra. They are the piano, organ, and harpsichord. The keyboard instruments are played by the conductor or the soloist. The piano is the most important of the keyboard instruments. It is used in symphony orchestras, in chamber music, and as a solo instrument. The organ is used in church music and in some symphony orchestras. The harpsichord is used mostly in chamber music.
The voice, as an instrument, is unique in its abilities. The human voice can sing with great emotional expressiveness, and can produce a wide range of sounds and pitches. The voice is also the only instrument that can produce words, which gives it the ability to communicate meaning beyond the simple emotions that can be conveyed through music.
Orchestral music is divided into four main sections, each containing a different type of instrument:
-The strings: The string section is made up of instruments such as the violin, viola, cello, and double bass. The strings are known for their beautiful melodies and their ability to create a wide range of emotions.
-The woodwinds: The woodwind section contains instruments such as the flute, oboe, clarinet, and bassoon. Woodwind instruments are known for their unique sound and their ability to create a wide range of textures.
-The brass: The brass section contains instruments such as the trumpet, trombone, and tuba. Brass instruments are known for their bright sound and their ability to create a sense of power and excitement.
-The percussion: The percussion section contains instruments such as the drums, cymbals, and timpani. Percussion instruments are known for their ability to create a wide range of rhythms and textures.
The conductor is the leader of the orchestra and is responsible for directing the musicians and ensuring that the music is performed correctly. The conductor will often use gestures to indicate to the musicians when to start and stop playing, and will also give them cues about tempo, dynamics and other aspects of the performance.
The audience is the group of people who listen to a particular type of music. They can be distinguished by their age, gender, ethnicity, nationality, religion, or other factors.
Orchestral music can be divided into four main categories: symphonic, concertante, operatic, and choral.
Symphonic music is performed by an orchestra and often consists of several movements. The word “symphony” comes from the Greek word meaning “to sound together.” Concertante music is similar to symphonic music but often features one or more solo instruments. Operatic music is performed in an opera house and usually tells a story. Choral music is performed by a choir and often features sacred texts.